International partnership “Methane - to markets” established in 2004 on the initiative of G8 countries is an instrument ensuring international cooperation in the field of commercial use of methane to be utilized at its basic sources including coal mines, oil and gas systems, landfills (domestic waste disposal polygons) and agricultural wastes.
The key objective of Partnership “Methane - to markets” consists in development and adoption of methane extraction and utilization technologies and using methane as a valuable clean energy source. The partnership’s functions are based upon worldwide coordination of different countries activity, encouraging of information and experience interchange, as well as promotion of cooperation of national organizations including the ones to be considered within the bounds of various international projects.
Partnership consists of the following participating countries: Argentina, Australia, Canada, China, India, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Poland, Russia, Ukraine, Great Britain and USA.
This website introduces Russian Center for Methane Utilization Information targeted to collection and distribution of the materials in terms of production and engineering utilization of solid domestic waste landfill methane (landfill gas) within the territory of Russian Federation. Center is a joint project of USA Environmental Agency within the framework of partnership “Methane - to market” to have been established under the support of Russian Federation Science and Innovation National Agency (Rosnauka) – the body authorized to provide for participation of Russian departments and organizations in the partnership projects.
Landfill gas is the organic substance decomposition by-product consisting of methane in the ratio of, approximately, 50%. It is principally used for production of electric energy. Besides, methane is enriched and utilized in the general-purpose gas supply systems. Landfill gas is extracted at the solid domestic waste polygons by means of the drill-and-piping system. Activities concerned to extraction and utilization of landfill gas not only improve ecological situation, since they lead to reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also may be considered as the matter of commercial significance. By now, more than 1100 landfill gas utilization projects have been implemented all over the world.
Landfill gas global emission is the important parameter to be used for assessment of forecasted models of the Earth climate subject to change as a whole. Also, in terms of evaluation of landfill methane flows, certain developed countries project national nature conservation strategies. For example, in USA, the new law about the need of equipping all and sundry country polygons with biogas extraction and neutralization systems came in force after the American analysts proved that the USA landfills are the basic anthropogenic methane sources.
For the first time, flows of landfill methane were analyzed last decade. In 1987, one of the first reputed works was the one to prove the fact that landfill gas global emission is rated to 30-70 million tons per year or makes up 6-18% of total global flow. An addition to, it was noted that the very value exceeds the mass of methane emitted by coal shafts. Thus, considering for the growing rate of the solid domestic waste volumes accumulated in the developing countries, it is forecasted that in the next century all the landfills will be the basic methane global sources.
In the mid of nineties, a group of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) experts estimated the rate of landfill methane global emission and found out that it amounted to the value of 40 million tons/year. Practically, all the previously estimated rates were just approved and the analysts made it possible to finally register landfill methane in a list of basic greenhouse gas global sources.
It should be noted that Russia is also makes its contribution in global emission. As per the same IPCC data, the Russian Federation landfills annually emit in atmosphere 1.1 million tons to be rated as 2.5% of the total planetary flow.